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Non-market, non-profit institutions that are controlled by government units are also classified to this sector. The sector does not include market-oriented public corporations, even when all the equity of such corporations is owned by government units. Quasi-corporations that are owned and controlled by government units are also not part of this sector. However, unincorporated enterprises owned by government units that are not quasi-corporations are part of the general government sector.

There are distinct sub-sectors for federal general government, provincial and territorial general government, local general government, Aboriginal general government and social security funds. The Aboriginal general government sub-sector represents First Nations and other Aboriginal government institutional units. Non-profit institutions serving government are also included within each level of government.

There is, of course, only one federal general government. There are ten provincial general governments, three territorial general governments and over 3, local general governments. Of those, 18 are part of a comprehensive land claim agreement. Within each of these levels of general government there are a number of institutional units, including one for the ministries, departments and non-autonomous funds and organizations of each of the governments.

There are additional units for autonomous funds and organizations and for non-autonomous government pension plans. Finally, the general government sector also includes sub-sectors for the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans, organized in the social security funds sector. Social security funds are recognized as distinct institutional units only if i they are separately organized from the other activities of government units, ii they hold assets and liabilities separately from other government units and iii they engage in financial transactions on their own account.

These criteria are met by the CPP and QPP , but not by other social protection programs such as the federal Old Age Security program, provincial and territorial health care programs, the Employment Insurance program and various provincial workers compensation programs. Figure 3. In particular, it shows how to distinguish government units from units belonging to the other five institutional sectors. It also shows how financial and non-financial corporations are allocated among the public, private and foreign-controlled sectors.

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Federal and provincial government business enterprise statistics are derived using a modified version of the Statistics Canada Chart of Accounts COA , a standardized tool for collection and dissemination of business statistics, and they are presented with the classification shown in Table The information is used as an input to the estimates of gross domestic product by income and expenditure, the supply and use tables as well as the financial and wealth accounts. As noted, the institutional units in the public sector universe are either part of the general government sector or part of the government business enterprise sector.

The former are non-market producers and non-profit institutions serving government units, while the latter are market producers. In this section some examples will be presented. The corporation is accountable to Parliament through a government minister and is governed by a board of directors and president appointed by the federal government.

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CMHC states on its website that it earns revenue by selling mortgage loan insurance. It contributes to the improvement of housing conditions for First Nations people on reserves. It also has a securitization guarantee program that enables approved financial institutions to pool eligible mortgages and transform them into marketable securities that can be sold to investors, thereby generating funds that can be loaned to residential homeowners.

The corporation also collaborates with other organizations to provide affordable housing to low-income households. Finally, CMHC conducts economic research related to the Canadian housing market and provides information to Canadians to assist their decision-making.

It is headquartered in Montreal and was created in by expropriating private companies. The Crown corporation has invested heavily in hydro-electric projects such as the Churchill Falls and James Bay projects.

The Government of Quebec is the sole shareholder in the corporation. It is part of the provincial and territorial government business enterprises sub-sector. The Agricultural Implements Board of Saskatchewan is a regulatory agency established to implement and oversee the Agricultural Implements Act of Saskatchewan. It is headquartered in Regina. The Agricultural Implements Act regulates the sale, lease and distribution of agricultural implements or parts in Saskatchewan.

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Dealers are legally required to make available the parts and service needed by farmers for their implements. The Act regulates minimum terms of warranties received from dealers selling or leasing equipment, sales contracts for new and used agricultural implements, the terms for leasing implements from financial institutions, guidelines for emergency parts and service, the means to obtain compensation for loss or damages because of unavailability of parts or non-fulfillment of warranty and the licensing of dealers and registering of distributors.

Farmers not receiving parts or services in a timely manner may be awarded compensation through the Agricultural Implements Compensation Fund. The board is part of the provincial and territorial general government sub-sector. The board is not a GBE because it is not a market producer, does not compete in the marketplace and does not get its primary income from market activity.

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Largely because it is so dependent on Parliamentary appropriations, the corporation is not classified as a government business enterprise but rather is an institutional unit within the federal government sub-sector. Canada has embassies and military bases in other countries. These are considered to be part of the federal government institutional unit. The embassies and other such territorial enclaves representing other countries in Canada are considered to be institutional units in the non-resident sector.

In the GFS presentation of the public sector accounts, the gross operating balance—a concept similar to what is popularly known as the surplus or deficit—is determined as the difference between two other concepts.

This is illustrated for the federal government in Table Taxes are compulsory unrequited levies imposed on other institutional units by governments while social contributions are compulsory but requited levies. Grants are non-compulsory transfers from other institutional units. All components are recorded on an accruals basis if possible.

In Canada, compulsory levies and grants dominate over other revenue sources for general government units. For government business enterprises, sales of goods and services and property income are the primary revenue sources.

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The classification categorizes taxes according to the base upon which the tax is levied. Government institutional units are the only ones that can impose taxes within an economy. The revenues from these taxes are typically central to the financial status of a government. The tax burden—defined as total revenue from all taxes, often expressed as a ratio to gross domestic product—is a key fiscal indicator and its trend has a lot to say about the evolving power and role of a government. As seen in previous chapters, taxes in SNA are classified according to their role in economic activity.

There are three broad categories: taxes on production, products and imports, current taxes on income and capital taxes. The first of these, comprising the personal and corporate income taxes, accounted for over half of total Canadian tax revenue in Taxes on payroll and workforce are not of major importance in Canada, in part because they provide a disincentive for employment. They include recurrent taxes on immovable property land, buildings and other structures or net wealth, special assessments, business property taxes, payments in lieu of taxes and non-recurrent taxes on property such as estate, inheritance and gift taxes.

Also included here are taxes on permission to use goods, such as motor vehicle licences, or to perform activities, as well as the profits of fiscal monopolies. Finally, taxes on international trade and transactions consist mainly of Customs and other import duties. As for most other concepts in GFS , tax revenues are measured on an accrual basis , meaning that flows are recorded at the time economic value is created, transformed, exchanged, transferred or extinguished.

As a practical matter, tax revenues are usually measured, in the first instance, at the time the funds appear in government bank accounts and adjustments must then be made to adjust their timing to an accrual basis. Note that for taxes to accrue they must be paid. Taxes owed but never collected are not considered to have accrued. Also, taxes collected but subsequently refunded are not considered to have accrued.

Tax revenues may be transferred from one government to another, but they are attributed to the government unit that exercises authority to impose the tax and has final discretion to set and vary the tax rate. For example, the federal and provincial portions of the personal income tax and the harmonized sales tax are attributed separately to each government. As mentioned previously, while taxes are compulsory and unrequited, social contributions are compulsory and requited levies.

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  • In other words, whereas taxes must be paid and no explicit benefits are receivable as a quid pro quo , social contributions must also be paid but are directly associated with the receipt of specific social benefits. Grants are a residual transfer category of revenue consisting of amounts receivable from other resident or non-resident government units or international organizations that do not meet the definition of taxes, subsidies or social contributions.

    They can be either current or capital transfers. Canadian governments do not often receive grants from non-resident government units or international organizations. Rather, most grants recorded in the public sector accounts are transfers between levels of government within Canada. These grants disappear when the accounts of the different levels of government are consolidated, but they account for a substantial proportion of total government revenues for individual provincial and territorial governments and local governments.

    State public sector entities: 2014-15 financial statements presentation

    In the Canadian federation, it has long been the practice that higher levels of government, given their broader tax bases, raise revenues that are then transferred to lower level governments. More specifically, the federal government transfers large amounts of money to the provincial and territorial governments every year and the provincial governments in turn make transfers to the local governments within their jurisdictions.

    The federal government also makes smaller transfers to local and Aboriginal governments. The Canada Health Transfer supports health care for Canadians and is calculated for each province and territory on a per capita basis and grown over time in line with a three-year moving average of nominal gross domestic product.